transformationCase Studies:

Strategies for Inclusion

This cross cutting research focuses on specific country examples of strategies for change, using active research methodologies, of ‘practice labs’ and ‘joint analysis’ as well as desk-based research with methodologies varying across case studies. Each case study has been chosen to ensure that a range of sub-issues pertinent to understanding political settlements are covered.  They include examples: from fragile and non-fragile contexts; from peace processes which are largely externally driven to ones that are very local; Centrally we ask: what types of strategies in peace processes have proved effective in opening up the political settlement to a range of actors, and have these efforts stabilised or de-stabilised the peace settlement?

Case studies are our main qualitative research strategy and our main focus is on: Afghanistan, Colombia, DRC, Ethiopia-Ogaden, Nepal and Northern Ireland. We also have some comparative studies: borderlands, practice labs, and through our constitution-making project.


The case studies are used to explore the questions from across the other themes. However, we are particularly interested to know:

How do marginalised groups access the potential entry points of the post-agreement context (what we are terming the ‘formalised political unsettlement’):

  • how do commitments to group inclusion open up opportunitites for broader equality claims to ‘piggy back’ on these commitments, and successfully press for broader forms of political equality?
  • how do moments of sudden political change enable issues of marginalisation to be addressed which have not been adequately taken up during the formal negotiation process;
  • in what ways do international norms have a heightened importance post-agreement, and how do local actors use them to leverage inclusion agendas? and
  • when and how were groups empowered to ‘take back control’ of the state, destroying the shared arrangements of peace agreements, what role did moments of crisis play?