peaceprocessesPeace Processes:

Peace Processes and Inclusion

In this theme we examine how political/military elites and other social forces press claims of inclusion during peace processes.  How is inclusion ‘navigated’ in the changing landscape of a peace process?

We consider in particular:

  • how peace processes are structured and sequenced and the consequences of sequences for inclusion, focusing on key moments – ceasefires, peace agreements, interim constitutions, constitutions
  • how horizontal inclusion of the political and military actors at the heart of the conflict is provided for, through power-sharing and forms of territorial devolution of power
  • how vertical inclusion is provided for, addressing women, non-aligned minorities, and other social constituences
  • the trade-offs between vertical and horizontal inclusion and strategies for navigating them

We try to identify effective strategies for change that are used by marginalised groups, and the ways in which international intervention assists or detracts from these strategies.

Our research is conducted through our case studies and practice labs, and through quantitative and qualitative work drawing on a large-scale global database of peace agreements – The Peace Agreement Access Tool: PA-X, and a large-scale global Amnesty Database.

  • What new forms of inclusion and exclusion do peace processes establish?
  • What are the trade-offs as regards inclusion of people and agendas for change, that occur in peace process, above and below the table?
  • In particular, what trade-offs do these agreements include, with reference to the relationship between stability and inclusion?
  • How do these change through stages of negotiating, drafting and implementing peace agreements?
  • In what ways are international actors involved in the negotiation processes: how and when do their agendas get incorporated into agreements?
  • What are the post-agreement entry points for strategies of change by marginalised groups in the space of the ‘formalised political unsettlement’?