Where are women involved in peace processes, and how can peace agreements adopt a gender perspective? You will see how there is a low level of women’s inclusion in peace agreements but that it has gradually improved over time.
The special needs of women and girls during repatriation and resettlement and for rehabilition, reintegration and post-conflict reconstruction;
Measures that support local women’s peace initiatives and indigenous processes for conflict resolution, and that involve women in all of the implementation mechanisms of the peace agreements;
Measures than ensure the protection of and respect for human rights of women and girls, particularly as they relate to the constitution, the electoral system, the police and the judiciary.
Burundi, Constitution of 2005
The Government is open to all the ethnic components. It includes at most 60% of Hutu Ministers and Vice-Ministers and at most 40% of Tutsi Ministers and Vice-Ministers. A minimum of 30% of women is assured.
Agreement: Northern Ireland, The Agreement Reached in the Multi-Party Negotiations (Good Friday Agreement or Belfast Agreement)
Page 20, Economic, Social and Cultural Issues, 1.
Pending the devolution of powers to a new Northern Ireland Assembly, the British Government will pursue broad policies for sustained economic growth and stability in Northern Ireland and for promoting social inclusion, including in particular community development and the advancement of women in public life.
Agreement: Libya, Draft Constitutional Charter for the Transitional Stage: The Constitutional Declaration
Page 3, Part One: General Provisions, Article (5)
... The State shall guarantee the protection of motherhood, childhood and the elderly.
Agreement: Democratic Republic of Congo, Draft Constitution of the Transition
Page 17, TITLE III: PUBLIC FREEDOM, BASIC RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE CITIZEN, Article 51,
The State shall have the duty to ensure the elimination of all forms of discrimination with regard to women and to ensure the respect and promotion of their rights...
Agreement: Nepal, Constitution of Nepal 2015
Page 117, PART 27, Other Commissions, 252. National Women Commission:
(1) There shall be a National Women Commission in Nepal consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.
Agreement: Mali/Azawad, Accord Pour la Paix et la Reconciliation au Mali - Issu du Processus d'Alger
Page 13, Title V Reconciliation, Justice and Humanitarian Issues, Chapter 14 Reconciliation and Justice, Article 46:
…Amnesty will not be given to the perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and serious violations of human rights linked to the conflict, including violence against women, girls, and children.
Agreement: Colombia, Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace
Page 191, 188.8.131.52.3. National collective reparation plans
In the context of the end of the conflict, the National Government will strengthen national collective reparation plans in developing this Agreement. These plans will be gender-based and will be aimed at communities consisting, inter alia, of groups and organisations such as women's and trade organisations….
Agreement: Bosnia and Herzegovina Yugoslavia (former), General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Dayton Peace Agreement)
Page 75, Annex 4: Constitution of Bosnia Herzegovina, Annex I:
Additional Human Rights Agreements to be Applied in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... 4. 1957 Convention on the Nationality of Married Women. ... 9. 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
Agreement: Iraq, Constitution of Iraq
Page 11, Article 30 (First):
The State shall guarantee to the individual and the family - especially children and women – social and health security, the basic requirements for living a free and decent life, and shall secure for them suitable income and appropriate housing
Agreement: Nigeria, Plateau State, Joint Declaration of Commitment to Peace and Cooperation
Page 6, Women: Dr. Sumaye Hamza [Signed]
Page 7, witnesses, HD Local Advisor, Khadijah Hawaja, [Signed]
Agreement: Somalia, Adadda Peace Agreement
Payment of one-hundred and twenty camels for each of the deceased persons from the Bah Ararsame; 50,000,000 Somali Shillings (So.sh) for funeral costs; $1000 for the family of deceased; and one godobtir girl per deceased;
Political power-sharing (process)
No political power-sharing (process)
Peace agreements seldom include a full gender perspective, and so UNSCR 1325 still needs better implementation mechanisms.
Greater attention should be paid to the inclusion of women at early stages of peace process, and during implementation stages rather than focusing on comprehensive agreements alone.
Women’s organisations need to be supported to access talks, along with other marginalised constituencies.
See publications at: www.politicalsettlements.org/publications-database
In particular Bell, C., & McNicholl, K. (2019). Principled Pragmatism and the 'Inclusion Project': Implementing a Gender Perspective in Peace Agreements. Feminists @ Law, 9(1). www.politicalsettlements.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/2019_Bell-McNicholl_feminists-law.pdf