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PSRP Country Summary: Bougainville


Key Publications & Resources


Gender in political transition: Bougainville’s peace process

Women’s civil society activism in Bougainville has not always been well reflected in decision-making processes; however the political transition following the Bougainville Peace Agreement in 2001 has provided opportunities for greater inclusion. This report explores how gender dynamics shape decision-making, power and influence in Bougainville, in particular how formal and customary structures impact inclusion. It also looks at the approaches and strategies Bougainvillean women have used to increase their agency and influence within formal, faith and customary institutions. 




Gendered Political Settlements: Examining Peace Transitions in Bougainville, Nepal and Colombia

Based on analysis of three contexts (Bougainville, an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea, Nepal and Colombia), this report explores how gender inclusion – meaningful participation at all levels of decision making, regardless of a person’s gender identity – is negotiated in elite-led peace processes and political settlements in conflict-affected contexts, and how international and national actors can support it effectively.

Policy points:

  • Deliberately building practical forms of inclusion into peace negotiations, agreements and implementing institutions are ways to seize the opportunities for inclusion during and immediately after the negotiation of a peace agreement.
  • Using an intersectional approach to peacebuilding can help identify patterns of multidimensional and persistent gender discrimination.
  • Longer timeframes and complementary initiatives at all levels of a peace process are needed to overcome resistance to change.
  • Women and other excluded groups working in civil society organisations often create and sustain spaces for inclusive change.
  • International frameworks and standards are useful to leverage for inclusion. However, they need to be complemented by homegrown, bottom-up perspectives, approaches and priorities.
  • Support from international organisations to local activists in the form of solidarity, funding, capacity and network building is invaluable, but needs to be based on gender-sensitive analysis.