PSRP Country Summary: Syria
Key Publications & Resources
There is a broad global consensus that inclusion matters in peace processes. The 2018 UN and World Bank report, Pathways for Peace, asserts that ‘addressing inequalities and exclusion’ and ‘making institutions more inclusive’ are key to preventing violent conflict. The challenges now are to strengthen that consensus and to better understand what inclusion in peace processes means in practice. In addressing some of the practical challenges of navigating inclusion in peace processes, this publication is structured around three areas of enquiry:
1) Frameworks for understanding inclusion in peace processes 2) Inclusion in practice in national peace processes – with ‘deep dive’ case studies of Colombia and Nepal 3) Inclusion in practice in sub- and supra-national peace processes – with case studies on Turkey, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Syria and Afghanistan
This fourth Accord Insight publication looks at peacebuilding in borderland regions and how peace and transition processes address the interests of borderland communities. It presents seven case studies including Syria, north-eastern Kenya, Tunisia, Northern Ireland, Ukraine, Nepal and Myanmar. A ‘borderlands lens’ challenges key assumptions in current peacebuilding policy and practice: that power and order radiate outwards from the centre; that border zones are resistant to being incorporated into national peacebuilding and statebuilding projects because of a lack of security, development or governance infrastructure; and that more development and greater state presence are, therefore, logical solutions to borderlands conflict.
The end of the Cold War and the political transitions in South America and Eastern Europe in the early 1990s led to significant developments in international law that sought to ensure greater accountability for perpetrators of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. In participating in the formulation of these legal obligations, states consented to limitations on their sovereign power to decide whether to prosecute perpetrators. By the late-2000s, it was commonplace to assert that the ‘Age of Accountability’ had arrived and that amnesties to shield war criminals and human rights abusers from prosecution and punishment would no longer be tolerated. However, in recent years, large-scale and horrific abuses have been perpetrated daily in Syria, Yemen, South Sudan, and other places, seemingly with little international effort to prevent or remedy them. This has led some to express concerns that the international community is abandoning the fight against impunity and, more worryingly, that we are entering a ‘post-human rights world’. In this lecture, Professor Louise Mallinder reflected on what her research on amnesty laws over the past decade and half tells us about the progress and challenges in the struggle against impunity.