Conflict, Development, and Covid-19 Resources

The Covid-19 pandemic is disproportionately affecting vulnerable populations around the world. The consequences of the virus on conflict-affected states are so powerful that United Nations Secretary General Antonio Guterres has called for a global ceasefire to stop violent conflict in support of the fight against novel coronavirus.

The Political Settlements Research Programme is committed to supporting communities experiencing violent conflict. We have put together a list of blogs and other resources addressing the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of conflict-affected states. If you would like to add to this list, please email politicalsettlements@ed.ac.uk. Read our statement on how we are handling our work during this time. You can also subscribe to our email updates.

1. Covid-19 Tools
2. Conflict, Peace, and Covid-19 Nexus
2.a Unity-Separatist Issues
2.b Geopolitics
3. Development-Related
3.a Elections
4. Emergency Legislation and States of Emergency
5. Ceasefires
6. Gender
7. International Influence and Mediation of Peace Processes
8. Role of Research and Expertise
9. Human Rights 
10. Countries (Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sudan, Yemen, Venezuela, Sri Lanka, Israel-Palestine, Ukraine, Somalia, Colombia, Ethiopia, Pakistan, El Salvador, Philippines, Thailand, Libya, Lebanon)


1. Covid-19 Tools

Perspectives on a Pandemic: COVID-19 Analysis from CIC – NYU Center on International Cooperation
Regularly updated collection of articles, blog posts, and policy papers on COVID-19 by the CIC.

COVID-19 Response and Resources by the Alliance for Peacebuilding (AfP)
Collection of resources (incl. blogs and webinars) on AfP members involved in COVID-19 responses, who are helping mitigate the crisis and protect the world’s most vulnerable populations.

COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19)
The Allen Institute for AI has partnered with leading research groups to prepare and distribute the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19), a free resource of over 51,000 scholarly articles, including over 40,000 with full text, about COVID-19 and the coronavirus family of viruses for use by the global research community.

Mapping Risk Factors for the Spread of COVID-19 in Africa – Africa Centre for Strategic Studies
A series of maps graphically representing relative levels of vulnerability across the African continent.

COVID-DEM Infohub – How is COVID-19 affecting democracy? – Democratic Decay
Long-form academic research
COVID-DEM’s aim is to help democracy analysts worldwide track, compile, and share information on how State responses to COVID-19 are impacting on democratic governance.

Mobility Restrictions COVID-19 – IOM
Portal that maps and monitors types of travel restrictions imposed by countries.

Coronavirus & Civic Space – ICLN
Resources and information on how international law provides a framework to uphold human rights during crisis response.

COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports – Google
See how your community is moving around differently due to COVID-19.

COVID-19 key information for South Sudan – CSRF South Sudan
Library of analysis and tools to help design and deliver more context-aware responses to COVID-19 in South Sudan.

Global Protest Tracker – The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
A one-stop source for following crucial trends in the most significant antigovernment protests worldwide that now also monitors global protests in times of COVID-19.

Coronavirus and Global Disorder analysis resources – The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carnegie experts offer analysis on the political, economic, and geostrategic effects of the global pandemic.

Life with Corona
Charitable open access citizen science project that collects data to allow a comprehensive insight into daily life during the pandemic.

COVID-19 Map – Johns Hopkins University

COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker – ICLN, ECLN, UN Special Rapporteur Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin

Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker – University of Oxford

#COVID19 – A global joint response (resources) – ACAPS

COVID-19 – Government measures (dataset) – ACAPS

COVID-19 AND PERSONS DEPRIVED OF LIBERTY  INFORMATION HUB – Association for the Prevention of Torture

Tracking the Global Response to COVID-19 – Privacy International

Country Policy Tracker – OECD

Understanding the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic through data – World Bank

COVID-19 Disorder Tracker – ACLED

 

2. Conflict, Peace, and Covid-19 Nexus

NEW: A Global Call: Will COVID-19 bring more peace to the world? –

Is there a Responsibility to Protect the world from pandemics? – Thomas Peak, Centre for Geopolitics

A dangerous cocktail: Coronavirus and war – Orly Stern

Fear of a fragile planet – Naomi Hossain, Institute of Development Studies

Violence imperils coronavirus response in conflict zones around the world – Danielle Paquette, Susannah George and Sudarsan Raghavan, The Washington Post

COVID-19 Symposium: COVID-19 in Conflict-Affected Areas–Armed Groups as Part of a Global Solution – Marcos D. Kotlik and Ezequiel Heffes, Opinio Juris

COVID-19: Four ways peacebuilders can respond – Rebeca Crozier, International Alert

COVID-19 and conflicts: Views from peacebuilders – Margot Jones, EPLO

Coronavirus in Conflict Zones: A Sobering Landscape – The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
A compilation of a dozen country analysis considering the consequences coronavirus will have on conflict-affected countries.

Coronavirus in conflict:The fight has hardly begun – Eleanor Gordon, Florence Carrot, The Interpreter

(EVENT) Coronavirus and Conflict: The Security Sector Response – USIP

The role of community peacebuilders in a pandemic: what we learnt from the Ebola crisis – Janet Adama Mohammed, Conciliation Resources

Responding to COVID-19: The Need for Conflict Sensitivity – Céline Monnier, NYU CIC

COVID-19 and the impact on local peacebuilding – Conducive Space for Peace, Humanity United, Peace Direct

COVID-19 and the toxic politics of exploitation – Louisa Waugh, Saferworld

Peace building in the time of Coronavirus – Michael Keating, EIP

How is COVID playing out in Fragile and Conflict Affected Settings? – Duncan Green, From Poverty to Power

Covid-19 and Violent Conflict: Responding to Predictable Unpredictability – Christine Bell, Political Settlements Research Programme (Just Security)

COVID-19 in Africa: “Know your Epidemic, Act on its Politics.” – Alex de Waal, LSE

The Impact of COVID-19 on Global Peace Operations – Cedric de Coning (IPI Global Observatory)

Covid-19 and Conflict: Seven Trends to Watch – Crisis Group

Conflict and peace scenarios in times of conflict

Dan Smith, SPRI Director, Covid-19-Conflict YouTube Analysis

CRP Update on Covid-19 in DRC, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, and Syria – Conflict Research Programme

Richard Gowan about the consequences of Coronavirus for peacekeeping

Dealing with Covid-19 in Conflict Zones Needs A Different Approach Katie Peters & Sherine El Taraboulsi-McCarthy, ODI (Thomson Reuters Foundation News)

Could coronavirus lead to a “positive peace”? – Rachel Scott, UNDP

Conflict and peace scenarios in times of COVID-19 – Juan Garrigues, CIDOB

COVID-19: One War that Must Be Fought – DPPA

Peace and Pandemics: How COVID-19 will impact violence and what we can do about it – Rachel Locke

Militancy in Lake Chad and Mozambique, COVID-19 in Gaza and Syria: The Cheat Sheet – The New Humanitarian

Yemen floods, Myanmar information bans, and COVID-19 disruption (nearly) everywhere: The Cheat Sheet – The New Humanitarian

The Coronavirus Could Topple Governments Around the World – Nic Cheeseman, Foreign Policy

What is SSR going to look like after Covid19? – Viola Csordas, DCAF-ISSAT

Corona-PeaceLab: How Do We Need to Adapt Crisis Prevention and Peacebuilding? – PeaceLab

COVID-19: Peacebuilders aren’t the side dish. We’re the delivery service – Mike Jobbins, Medium

Peace First Launches Rapid Response Grants to Address COVID-19 – Peace First

2.a Unity-Separatist issues

Devolved Spain Struggles for Unity Against Coronovirus

2.b Geopolitics 

The World Health Organization and Pandemic Politics – David P. Fidler, Think Global Health

 

3. Development-Related

‘Just one case’: fears coronavirus may spread like wildfire in world’s refugee camps – Reuters

Fragility and Pandemics: Finding the right equation to steer action – Rachel Locke

After the pandemic: How will COVID-19 transform global health and development? – Michael Igoe, Vince Chadwick, Devex

The Coronavirus is a Call To Build Resilience in Fragile States – Nancy Lindborg, USIP

The Covid-19 pandemic in the eyes of a Rohingya – Rashid Mubarak, Asia Times

Broadcast: Fears for world’s largest refugee settlement as Coronavirus draws closer – BBC World Service Newshour

Global Health Security – COVID-19 & Humanitarian Response: Leave No-One Behind – Alistair D. B. Cook, RSiS

Coronavirus and aid: what we’re watching – New Humanitarian

Q&A: WHO’s Mike Ryan on how countries in crisis can perpare for a coronavirus epidemic – New Humanitarian

How You Can Protect Your Community, Not Just Your Own HealthOeindrila Dube and , NY Times

Protecting African Garment Industry from Covid Fallout?

Public health experts: Coronavirus could overwhelm the developing world – Anthony FaiolaSudarsan RaghavanMax Bearak and Terrence McCoy, The Washington Post

From cholera to corona: The politics of plagues in Africa – Simukai Chigudu, Africa Is a Country

Roma: Europe’s Neglected Coronavirus Victims – Stephan Müller, Fikrija Tair, Bashkim Ibishi and Dragan Gracanin, Reporting Democracy

3.a Elections

Global overview of COVID-19: Impact on elections (regularly updated) – International IDEA

A First Step Toward Reform: Ending Burundi’s Forced Contribution System – Crisis Group
This is a pre-COVID-19 analysis but serves to understand current electoral dynamics which may be impacted by the pandemic. Crisis Group is following up on the implications COVID-19 has on this and other situations.

Elections and COVID-19 (International IDEA)

 

4. Emergency Legislation and States of Emergency

COVID-19, Emergency Legislation, and Sunset Clauses – Sean Molloy, Political Settlements Research Programme

Covid-19 and Derogations Before the European Court of Human Rights – Sean Molloy, VerfBlog

The Virus that Ends Us: On the Ethics of Withdrawal and Affirmation – Jan Pospisil, Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution (CPD Policy Blog)

Pandemics and Human Rights – Doug Rutzen and Nikhil Dutta (Just Security)

IDEA Declarations of emergency have emerged throughout the world in response to #covid2019 what is the role of the Constitution in times of crisis? 

South Asia states of emergency Asanga Welikala

Political finance oversight during a global health pandemic – Yukihiko Hamada, IDEA

 

5. Ceasefires

NEW: Ceasefires in the Time of COVID-19 – , , , and

The U.N. has appealed for a global coronavirus cease-fire – But is it possible to quarantine conflict? – Govinda Clayton, Washington Post

Update on the Secretary General’s Appeal for A Global Ceasefire

Coronavirus: ceasefires and resolutions in project at UN

Calling for a global ceasefire – GPPAC

Ceasefires in Armed Conflicts during the Coronavirus Pandemic – ECP, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Ceasefire Arrangements – Political Settlements Research Programme
When and how are ceasefires negotiated, and what are their critical elements? The Spotlight reviews core elements included in the 267 ceasefire agreements signed between 1990 and 2015 listed on the PA-X Peace Agreements Database.

Gender Mainstreaming in Ceasefires: Comparative Data and Examples – Political Settlements Research Programme
When and how have ceasefire agreements in armed conflict addressed women? Why should ceasefires include gender-specific provisions? Finally, what are the potential strategies for including women in ceasefire monitoring and implementation modalities?

Humanitarian Assistance and Gender Perspectives in Peace Agreements – Political Settlements Research Programme
When and how do peace processes provide for humanitarian assistance? Do peace agreements that provide for humanitarian assistance adopt a gender perspective?

 

 

6. Gender

NEW: ICAN’s Statement on our Gender- and Conflict-Sensitive Response to COVID-19 – International Civil Society Action Network

Why Women’s Rights Must be Central to the UN Security Council’s Response to COVID-19 – NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security

Gender implications of COVID-19 outbreaks in development and humanitarian settings – Care

 

7. International Influence and Mediation of Peace Processes

What the Pandemic Means for UN Peacekeeping Work –

Digital Technologies and Mediation Toolkit – United Nations Peacemaker

What the UN Security Council Can Do on Coronavirus: A Global Goods Coordination Mechanism – Rob Berschinski, Human Rights First (Just Security)

How coronavirus is accelerating a new approach to international cooperation – Annalisa Prizzon, Overseas Development Institute

Coronavirus Puts Systems for International Cooperation to the Test – William J. Long, J USIP

U.N. Security Council Paralyzed as Contagion Rages – Colum Lynch, Foreign Policy

A message to the OSCE Community: We need solidarity and co-operation, OSCE core values, to work together to stop the pandemic – OSCE

 

8. Role of Research and Expertise

Impact evaluations in the time of Covid-19, Part 1 – Markus Goldstein, Florence Kondylis, World Bank
More relevant World Bank blogs about alternative ways of collecting data and conducting evaluations include: Dialing for Data: The Story of a High Frequency Phone Survey in Liberia (Kristen Himelein), and Calling it in: using phones for repeat surveys (Markus Goldstein).

COVID-19 – the social science response to the pandemicIDS

Covid-19 – a social phenomenon requiting diverse expertise – Hayley Macgregor, Melissa Leach, Annie Wilkinson, and Melissa Parker, Institute of Development Studies (IDS blog)

Fill the gaps, feel the pain: Insights from Sierra Leone on an epidemic’s impact on local taxation, public services, and the poor – Vanessa van den Boogaard, International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD blog)

 

9. Human Rights

Explainer: Seven ways the coronavirus affects human rights – Amnesty International

COVID-19: A Human Rights Checklist – Human Rights Watch

 

10. Countries

10.1 Afghanistan

Interview with Barnett R. Rubin on the crisis of Afghan war politics, and Covid-19 – TOLOnews

How to keep Coronavirus from hampering the peace process in Afghanistan – Barnett R. Rubin, Responsible Statecraft

The regional dimension of Covid-19’s interaction with war and peace in Afghanistan – Responsible Statecraft

An Ailing America Must Not Abandon Afghanistan – Foreign Policy

Coronavirus Poses Yet Another Challenge to the Afghan Peace Process – Scott Smith, USIP

Only Peace Can Avert a COVID-19 Catastrophe in Afghanistan – M. Ashraf Haidari, Ambassador of Afghanistan to Sri Lanka

10.2 Kosovo

Kosovo’s Ousted Government, Secret Deals, and War Crimes Charges – Balkan Transitional Justice

10.3 Sudan

Coronavirus reaches Sudan, one of the countries least equipped to cope with it – Mark Weston

Can there be a democratic public health? From HIV Aids to Covid-19

10.4 Yemen

Yemen coronavirus lockdown to hamper relief effort – The New Humanitarian

A Coronavirus Ceasefire Offers A Way Out for War-Torn Yemen – Crisis Group

10.5 Venezuela

Steve Hege on Venezuela and Colombia During Coronavirus – Steve Hege, USIP

Venezuela Urgently Needs a Humanitarian Accord that Prioritizes Life and Dignity – Feliciano Reyna Ganteaume

10.6 Sri Lanka

Assessing Sri Lanka’s response to COVID-19 – The Alliance of Independent Professionals

Update on Sri Lanka’s Response to COVID-19 – The Alliance of Independent Professionals

10.7 Israel-Palestine

Could the coronavirus bring peace among Israelis and Palestinians? – Iona Hirsch, The Jerusalem Post

US: Coronavirus cooperation proof Israeli-Palestinian peace talks possible – Tovah Lazaroff, The Jerusalem Post

10.8 Ukraine

Opinion: The Coronavirus Crisis Presents An Opportunity To End War In Ukraine – William B. Taylor, Steven Piper, John E. Herbst, NPR

In Frontline Ukraine, Global Pandemic Puts People at Unimaginable Risk – Igor Mitchnik, Open Democracy

10.9 Somalia

How Will Remittances Affect the Somali COVID-19 Response? – Nisar Majid, Laura Hammond, Khalif Abdirahman, Guhad Adan and Nauja Kleis

10.10 Nigeria

Benue, Taraba government sign peace agreement over Tiv/Jukun crisis – NAN, The Guardian Nigeria

Nigeria Should Build Peace Like it Fights Coronavirus – Oge Onubogu, USIP

10.11 Colombia

Steve Hege on Venezuela and Colombia During Coronavirus – Steve Hege, USIP

Colombia hopes for ‘humanitarian’ ceasefire during coronavirus as violence resurges – Shauna N Gillooly, The Conversation

10.12 Ethiopia

Ethiopia: Political Momentum for Peace and Human Rights?– The KOFF Peacebuilding Magazine

10.13 Pakistan

Pakistan’s Looming Coronavirus Crisis – Cyril Almeida, Richard Olson, USIP

10.14 El Salvador

In El Salvador, gangs are enforcing the coronavirus lockdown with baseball bats – Kate Linthicum, Molly O’Toole, Alexander Renderos, Los Angeles Times

10.15 Philippines 

Ex-MILF fighters harvest, donate 100 sacks of calamansi for COVID-19 fight in Isulan – Bong S. Sarmiento, Minda News

10.16 Thailand

Covid-19 ceasefire unlikely to hasten peace in Thailand’s south – Craig Keating, The Interpreter

10.17 Libya 

VIDEO: ‘Which Death Is Going to Be Worse?’ Coronavirus Invades a Conflict Zone – Haley Willis, Christiaan Triebert, Natalie Reneau and David Botti, The New York Times

Libya and pandemic politics in armed conflicts – Sherine El Taraboulsi-McCarthy, ODI

10.18 Lebanon

COVID-19: Seven trends that will shape peacebuilding in Lebanon – Ruth Simpson, International Alert

 

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