Example: Ouagadougou Political Agreement, Cote d'Ivoire
3.1.1. In keeping with the spirit of joint handling of issues related to defence and security, the two former belligerent Parties agree to create an Integrated Command Centre for the purpose of integrating the two fighting forces and implementing measures for the restructuring of the Defence and Security Forces (FDS) of Côte d’Ivoire.
Example: Agreement between the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahariya and the Rep of Chad concerning the practical modalitities for the implementation of the Judgment delivered by the International Court of Justice on 3 February 1994, Chad/Libya
Page 3, Article 4. The two countries have agreed to study the question of establishing joint patrols to monitor the extensive frontier between the two countries, within the framework of bilateral relations.
Example: Ceasefire Agreement (Bicesse Accords), Angola
4. The monitoring groups, which will be established before entry into force of the cease-fire, will be composed of an equal number of representatives from the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA.
We agree that, as prescribed in the Federation Constitution, the Cantonal governments shall ensure that the composition of the police shall reflect that of the population, according to the 1991 census, provided that the composition of the police of each Municipality, shall reflect the composition of the latter.Page 3, Concrete Steps, 5, Agreement on Restructuring the Police (Bonn-Petersburg Agreement), Bosnia and Herzegovina-Yugoslavia (former) 25/04/1996
RENAMO received security guarantees and a place in the state security forces while FRELIMO maintained elements of control (Manning 2002).
RENAMO combatants transferring to the joint military were allowed to keep their rank even if the had not received the training commensurate with that position. They also were guaranteed high ranking roles for senior officers (Dayton and Kriesberg 2009).
International involvement was important. While the parties willingly came to the negotiating table, the UN facilitated the complicated and delicate nature of the deliberations.
Military power-sharing is often agreed as an alternative form of demobilisation, demilitarisation and reintegration (DDR) measures, or put in place as part of a wider attempt as security sector reform (SSR). DDR, SSR and forms of military power-sharing may all be part of a ‘security transition’, which is itself a political process.
Recognised and addressed
2 ARMED GROUPS
when in reality
OVER 24 EXISTED
The others then ramped up violent activities in an attempt to gain a position in the national military.
Human rights and rule of law can be brought into military power-sharing agreements by:
See publications at: www.politicalsettlements.org/publications-database
In particular: Bell, C., Gluckstein, S., Forster, R., & Pospisil, J. (2018). Military Power-Sharing and Inclusion in Peace Processes (PA-X Report, Power-Sharing Series). Edinburgh: Global Justice Academy, The University of Edinburgh.